International Trade Policies
markets affects business decisions. When it comes to Crimea and
Palestine, various international trade policies affect the import and
export of goods and services to and from these occupied
lands. Below you will find links to major international trade policies
affecting access to and from markets in these regions.
Due to the
Russian occupation of Crimea in March, 2014, the United States,
European Union and other countries have imposed economic sanctions on
commercial operations involving Crimean territory,
entities and individuals. In addition, there are sanctions that
primarily target businesses and individuals with close ties to the
current Russian administration.
Below are links to the major sanctions:
Order 13360 (March 6th, 2014): The United States government imposes
sanctions on individuals and entities involved in the annexation of
Order 13361 (March 17th,
2014): The United States government imposes further restrictions on
Russian individuals and entities involved in the annexation of Crimea.
Order 13362 (March 20th,
2014): The United States government imposes more sanctions on Russian
individuals and entities involved in the annexation of Crimea.
Order 13685 (December 19th,
2014): The United States government imposes a full financial ban
prohibiting U.S. persons and entities from new investment, performing
goods, services and/or technology with the region of Crimea.
Crimea Sanctions Advisory (July 30th, 2015): The United States government issued this Advisory to highlight some of the practices that have been used to circumvent or evade US sanctions involving Crimea.
European Union sanctions are imposed pursuant to the EU’s autonomous Common Foreign and Security Policy powers.
of the European Union Conclusions on Ukraine (February 20th, 2014):
The EU imposes restrictions in form of asset freeze and visa ban against
those responsible for violence in Ukraine.
Council of the European Union Sanctions on entities and individuals
(March 17th, 2014): The EU releases a list of sanctioned
individuals and entities in relation to the annexation of Crimea.
EU extends list of banned individuals on the following dates:
of the European Union adaptation of trade restrictions
(July 31st, 2014): The EU adopts a ban on new investment in selected sectors in Crimea and Sevastopol.
of the European Union adaptation of additional trade restrictions
(December 18th, 2014): The EU imposes a ban on conducting business in Crimea and Sevastopol. Explicit sectors and types of businesses mentioned.
of European Union Decision (CFSP) 2015/971: The EU amends
Council Decision 2014/512/CFSP, extending sanctions for a further six months.
Since the beginning of the crisis, Ukraine imposed sanctions on certain Russian personnel, as well as a blockade on Crimea.
sanctions on individuals and entities involved in the annexation of Crimea.
sanctions that are similar to those imposed by the European Union.
Japan joins EU and U.S. in imposing
sanctions on Russia following its occupation of Crimea.
Norway joins the EU and US in imposing
sanctions on Russia following its occupation of Crimea. Click
here for the most recent updates.
Switzerland did not join the EU
sanctions. However, it has imposed a number of measures to avoid
undermining the EU sanctions. Click
here for an outline of recent amendments in English with links to the full texts in German and French.
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currently no economic sanctions in relation to the Israeli occupation of
Palestine. There are a number of bi- and multi-lateral trade
agreements that govern the import and export of goods
to and from Palestine. The occupation complicates the realization of
these trade agreements, as the Palestinians do not control their
borders. Imports and exports are largely controlled by Israeli
regulations. As a result, different countries have taken
different approaches to recognizing Palestine as a trade partner while
accounting for Israel’s involvement in the process.
– Israel Free Trade Agreement
(1985): The US trade agreement with Palestine is actually part of the US Free
Trade Agreement with Israel. In 1996, the US signed a Declaration of
Free Trade between the US and
West Bank and Gaza Strip. However, it became obvious that its
successful implementation depended upon Israel’s agency. The
declaration was thus incorporated into the US-Israel agreement.
– Israel Free Trade Agreement (1997):
After signing the Framework
on Economic Cooperation and Trade Between Palestine and Canada, the
sides acknowledged that its successful implementation depended upon
Israel’s agency. Therefore,
the framework was incorporated into the Canada – Israel Free Trade
Interim Association Agreement
(July 1997): The
EU concluded an agreement that provides preferential treatment to goods
and services imported from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Unlike the
US, the EU concluded a separate
agreement with Israel.
Agreement with Israel
(2000): The EU agreement with Israel, unlike the US agreement, exclusively covers trade benefits with Israel.
of Justice of the European Union
(2010): Implementation of the Euro-Mediterranean Agreement with
Israel became controversial due to the court ruling that products
manufactured in Israeli settlements should not receive the trade
benefits specified in the agreement, as they did not originate
on the eligibility of Israeli entities and their activities
(2013): Israeli settlements will no longer be eligible for grants or
prizes from the EU. The guidelines demonstrate restrictions on financial
instruments provided to the settlements
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip - Paris Economic Protocol
The agreement governs economic relations between Israel and the
Palestinian authority that includes but is not limited to tax collection
and exportation of Palestinian
Paris Economic Protocol is cited in the following trade
agreements with Palestine. By using the Protocol, the signers attempt to
address Israeli control of the Palestinian borders.
Trade Agreement With Egypt
Trade Agreement With Jordan
The following multi-lateral trade agreements include Palestine:
Arab Free Trade Area
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Agreement with EFTA States
Agreement on Trade with Turkey
Trade Agreement with MERCOSUR (2011)